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Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Guys Playing With Girls' Feelings

Isn't amazingly ridiculous how guys can play with the emotions and feelings of a female and go on with their life with no care? You can meet a guy or even know a guy, hit it off, then all of a sudden, things go south. As a woman, you start to second guess yourself all because of the asshole of a guy decides that he no longer wants you anymore. He doesn't even care to give you an explanation as to why he wasted your time, pretending to want a future with you, etc. You really believed that maybe it could work, until his communication all of a sudden stops, lessens, or just come to a complete halt.

He told you how you two were going to do all of these things and it barely made it to 2 months. Ladies, it's important to not sleep with these men until they prove they are FOR YOU ONLY. Don't let them in just because they speak of things. It's the actions that proves everything. You can figure him out with the smallest of things that he do. When you all go out, do he look around as if looking at you isn't good enough? Think about it ladies.

Monday, September 28, 2015

The Last House On The Left (2009) Movie Review

The Last House On The Left is a good movie in my opinion. I saw it years back, but just watched it a few minutes ago. It's just crazy how relentless some people can be. I was so happy seeing that the blonde haired girl lived and her parents were able to kill those bastards. 
The Last House On The Left, movies, 2009, review

Watch The Last House On The Left 2009

Saturday, September 19, 2015


Saturday night and I have nothing planned. Nothing to do. The weekend is almost over. This is like the day of the weekend that lets you know you only have one day left before school or work or both if you have a busy schedule. I was in the house all day because I am a mother of a two year old girl. Being a new mom is tough when you want to still have freedom so all you can do is embrace your child and you will get to get some fresh air. Just not when you want it. Today was a regular day. I was in the house all day. Didn't go outdoors at all so I didn't feel the weather. My mother cooked some chicken tenders and I dipped them in ketchup and drank a ginger ale.

Tuesday, September 15, 2015

The Fluidity of Cell Phones.

 A mobile phone is a phone that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station.
In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, gaming, and photography. Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.
The first hand-held cell phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing around 4.4 pounds .
In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first to be commercially available. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from zero to over 7 billion, penetrating 100% of the global population and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid. In 2014, the top cell phone manufacturers were Samsung, Nokia, Apple, and LG.
A hand-held mobile radiotelephone is an old dream of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for what he described as a "pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone". Among other early descriptions is one found in the 1948 science fiction novel Space Cadet by Robert Heinlein. The protagonist, who has just traveled to Colorado from his home in Iowa, receives a call from his father on a telephone in his pocket. Before leaving for earth orbit, he decides to ship the telephone home "since it was limited by its short range to the neighborhood of an earth-side  relay office." Ten years later, an essay by Arthur C. Clarke envisioned a "personal transceiver, so small and compact that every man carries one." Clarke wrote: "the time will come when we will be able to call a person anywhere on Earth merely by dialing a number." Such a device would also, in Clarke's vision, include means for global positioning so that "no one need ever again be lost." In his 1962 Profiles of the Future, he predicted the advent of such a device taking place in the mid-1980s.
Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships and trains. The race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive generations from the early "0G"  services like the Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, Improved Mobile Telephone Service. These "0G" systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, and were very expensive.
The first handheld mobile cell phone was demonstrated by Motorola in 1973. The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. In 1981, this was followed by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone  system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Several other countries then followed in the early to mid-1980s. These first generation  systems could support far more simultaneous calls, but still used analog technology.
In 1991, the second generation  digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard. This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators.
Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation  was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access  family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.
By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications like streaming media. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to 10-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard  and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.
All mobile phones have a number of features in common, but manufacturers also seek product differentiation by adding functions to make them more attractive to consumers. This has led to great innovation in mobile phone development over the past 20 years.
The common components found on all phones are:
A battery, providing the power source for the phone functions.
An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. The most common input mechanism is a keypad, but touch screens are also found in most smartphones.
A screen which echoes the user's typing, displays text messages, contacts and more.
Basic mobile phone services to allow users to make calls and send text messages.
All GSM phones use a SIM card to allow an account to be swapped among devices. Some CDMA devices also have a similar card called a R-UIM.
Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are uniquely identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity  number.
Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones, and offer basic telephony. Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of native software applications became known as smartphones.
Several phone series have been introduced to address specific market segments, such as the RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs; the Sony-Ericsson 'Walkman' series of music/phones and 'Cyber-shot' series of camera/phones; the Nokia Nseries of multimedia phones, the Palm Pre the HTC Dream and the Apple iPhone.
Sound quality  
In sound quality, smartphones and feature phones vary little. Some audio-quality enhancing features like Voice over LTE and HD Voice have appeared and are often available on newer smartphones. Sound quality can remain a problem with both, as this depends, not so much on the phone itself, as on the quality of the network, and in case of long distance calls, the bottlenecks/choke points met along the way. As such, on long-distance calls even features such as Voice over LTE, HD voice may not improve things. In some cases smartphones can improve audio quality even on long-distance calls, by using VoIP phone service, with someone else's WiFi/internet connection.
Text messaging  
The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.
The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000, and subsequently many organizations provided "on-demand" and "instant" news services by SMS.
Multimedia Messaging Service  was introduced in 2001.
SIM card  
GSM feature phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM card, to function. The SIM card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. The SIM securely stores the service-subscriber key  and the Ki used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone. The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device, provided that this is not prevented by a SIM lock.
The first SIM card was made in 1991 by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient for the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja.
Multi-card hybrid phones  
A hybrid mobile phone can hold up to four SIM cards. SIM and RUIM cards may be mixed together to allow both GSM and CDMA networks to be accessed.
From 2010 onwards they became popular in India and Indonesia and other emerging markets, attributed to the desire to obtain the lowest on-net calling rate. In Q3 2011, Nokia shipped 18 million of its low cost dual SIM phone range in an attempt to make up lost ground in the higher end smartphone market.
Kosher phones  
There are Jewish orthodox religious restrictions which, by some interpretations, standard mobile telephones do not meet. To solve this issue, some rabbinical organizations have recommended that phones with text messaging capability not be used by children. These restricted phones are known as kosher phones and have rabbinical approval for use in Israel and elsewhere by observant Orthodox Jews. Although these phones are intended to prevent immodesty, some vendors report good sales to adults who prefer the simplicity of the devices. Some phones are even approved for use by essential workers  on the sabbath, even though use of any electrical device is generally prohibited.
Mobile phone operators  
The world's largest individual mobile operator by subscribers is China Mobile with over 500 million mobile phone subscribers. Over 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each, and over 150 mobile operators had at least one million subscribers by the end of 2009. In 2014, there were more than seven billion mobile phone subscribers worldwide, a number that is expected to keep growing.
Prior to 2010, Nokia was the market leader. However, since then competition emerged in the Asia Pacific region with brands such as Micromax, Nexian, and i-Mobile and chipped away at Nokia's market share. Android powered smartphones also gained momentum across the region at the expense of Nokia. In India, their market share also dropped significantly to around 31 percent from 56 percent in the same period. Their share was displaced by Chinese and Indian vendors of low-end mobile phones.
In Q1 2012, based on Strategy Analytics, Samsung surpassed Nokia, selling 93.5 million units and 82.7 million units, respectively. Standard & Poor's has also downgraded Nokia to 'junk' status at BB+/B with negative outlook due to high loss and still declined with growth of Lumia smartphones was not sufficient to offset a rapid decline in revenue from Symbian-based smartphones over the next few quarters.
In Q3 2014, the top 10 manufacturers were Samsung, Nokia, Apple Inc., LG, Huawei, TCL Communication, Xiaomi, Lenovo, ZTE  and Micromax .
Note: Vendor shipments are branded shipments and exclude OEM sales for all vendors
Other manufacturers outside the top five include TCL Communication, Lenovo, Sony Mobile Communications, Motorola. Smaller current and past players include Karbonn Mobile, Audiovox, BenQ-Siemens, BlackBerry, Casio, CECT, Coolpad, Fujitsu, HTC, Just5, Kyocera, Lumigon, Micromax Mobile, Mitsubishi Electric, Modu, NEC, Neonode, Openmoko, Panasonic, Palm, Pantech Wireless Inc., Philips, Qualcomm Inc., Sagem, Sanyo, Sharp, Sierra Wireless, SK Teletech, Soutec, Trium, Toshiba, and Vidalco.
Use of mobile phones
Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, including keeping in touch with family members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Some people carry more than one cell phone for different purposes, such as for business and personal use. Multiple SIM cards may also be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans—a particular plan might provide cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming. The mobile phone has also been used in a variety of diverse contexts in society, for example:
A study by Motorola found that one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second phone that is often kept secret from other family members. These phones may be used to engage in activities including extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings.
Some organizations assist victims of domestic violence by providing mobile phones for use in emergencies. They are often refurbished phones.
The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel; the first literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a website that collects the novels as a whole.
Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo! and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka.
The United Nations reported that mobile phones have spread faster than any other technology and can improve the livelihood of the poorest people in developing countries by providing access to information in places where landlines or the Internet are not available, especially in the least developed countries. Use of mobile phones also spawns a wealth of micro-enterprises, by providing work, such as selling airtime on the streets and repairing or refurbishing handsets.
In Mali and other African countries, people used to travel from village to village to let friends and relatives know about weddings, births and other events, which is now avoided within mobile phone coverage areas, which are usually more extensive than land line penetration.
The TV industry has recently started using mobile phones to drive live TV viewing through mobile apps, advertising, social tv, and mobile TV. 86% of Americans use their mobile phone while watching TV.
In parts of the world, mobile phone sharing is common. It is prevalent in urban India, as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobiles among their members. There are obvious economic benefits, but often familial customs and traditional gender roles play a part. It is common for a village to have access to only one mobile phone, perhaps owned by a teacher or missionary, but available to all members of the village for necessary calls.
Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features but the ITU measures those with internet connection which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions  In the developed world these have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems but in the developing world account for only 20%.
For distributing content  
In 1998, one of the first examples of distributing and selling media content through the mobile phone was the sale of ringtones by Radiolinja in Finland. Soon afterwards, other media content appeared such as news, video games, jokes, horoscopes, TV content and advertising. Most early content for mobile tended to be copies of legacy media, such as the banner advertisement or the TV news highlight video clip. Recently, unique content for mobile has been emerging, from the ringing tones and ringback tones in music to "mobisodes", video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones.
In 2006, the total value of mobile-phone-paid media content exceeded Internet-paid media content and was worth 31 billion dollars. The value of music on phones was worth 9.3 billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth over 5 billion dollars in 2007.
While driving  
Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents. Because of this, many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore ban both handheld and hands-free use of a mobile phone; others —including the UK, France, and many U.S. states—ban handheld phone use only, allowing hands-free use.
Due to the increasing complexity of mobile phones, they are often more like mobile computers in their available uses. This has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials in distinguishing one usage from another as drivers use their devices. This is more apparent in those countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those who have banned handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by looking at the driver. This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally on a phone call when, in fact, they were using the device for a legal purpose such as the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo or satnav.
A 2010 study reviewed the incidence of mobile phone use while cycling and its effects on behaviour and safety.
Mobile banking and payments  
In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message. Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash may be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country, and may be transferred electronically from person to person as well as used to pay bills to companies.
Branchless banking has also been successful in South Africa and the Philippines. A pilot project in Bali was launched in 2011 by the International Finance Corporation and an Indonesian bank Bank Mandiri.
Another application of mobile banking technology is Zidisha, a US-based nonprofit micro-lending platform that allows residents of developing countries to raise small business loans from Web users worldwide. Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to the borrowers in rural Africa using the Internet and mobile phones.
Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually, the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the country's first commercial mobile payments systems on the mobile operators Globe and Smart.
Some mobile phone can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes or through contactless payments if the phone and point of sale support near field communication . This requires the co-operation of manufacturers, network operators and retail merchants to enable contactless payments through NFC-equipped mobile phones.
Tracking and privacy  
Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. While the phone is turned on, the geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily, using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.
The movements of a mobile phone user can be tracked by their service provider and, if desired, by law enforcement agencies and their government. Both the SIM card and the handset can be tracked. In the UK and US, law enforcement and intelligence services use mobiles to perform surveillance. They possess technology to activate the microphones in cell phones remotely in order to listen to conversations that take place near the phone.
According to the Federal Communications Commission, one out of three robberies involved the theft of a cellular phone. Police data in San Francisco showed that one-half of all robberies in 2012 were thefts of cellular phones. An online petition on called Secure our Smartphones urged smartphone manufacturers to install kill switches in their devices to make them unusable in case of theft. The petition is part of a joint effort by New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman and San Francisco District Attorney George Gascón and was directed to the CEOs of the major smartphone manufacturers and telecommunication carriers.
On Monday, 10 June 2013, Apple announced it would install a kill switch on its next iPhone operating system, due to debut in October 2013.
Health effects
The effect mobile phone radiation has on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, in non-human animals and in humans, of which the majority shows no definite causative relationship between exposure to mobile phones and harmful biological effects in humans. This is often paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from mobile phones, although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are inconclusive. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation.
On 31 May 2011, the World Health Organization stated that mobile phone use may possibly represent a long-term health risk, classifying mobile phone radiation as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" after a team of scientists reviewed studies on cell phone safety. Mobile phones are in category 2B, which ranks it alongside coffee and other possibly carcinogenic substances.
At least some recent studies have found an association between cell phone use and certain kinds of brain and salivary gland tumors. Lennart Hardell and other authors of a 2009 meta-analysis of 11 studies from peer-reviewed journals concluded that cell phone usage for at least ten years "approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same  side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use."
One study of past cell phone use cited in the report showed a "40% increased risk for gliomas  in the highest category of heavy users ." This is a reversal from their prior position that cancer was unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations and that reviews had found no convincing evidence for other health effects. Certain countries, including France, have warned against the use of cell phones especially by minors due to health risk uncertainties. However, a study published 24 March 2012 in the British Medical Journal questioned these estimates, because the increase in brain cancers has not paralleled the increase in mobile phone use.
Future evolution
5G is a technology used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G is not officially used for any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum, or ITU-R. New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress by standardization bodies, but are at this time not considered as new mobile generations but under the 4G umbrella.
Deloitte is predicting a collapse in wireless performance to come as soon as 2016, as more devices using more and more services compete for limited bandwidth.
Environmental impact
Studies have shown that around 40-50% of the environmental impact of a mobile phone occurs during the manufacturing of the printed wiring boards and integrated circuits. The average user replaces their mobile phone every 11 to 18 months. The discarded phones then contribute to electronic waste.
Mobile phone manufacturers within Europe are subject to the WEEE directive. Australia introduced a mobile phone recycling scheme.
Conflict minerals
Demand for metals found in mobile phones and other electroncs fuelled the Second Congo War. The war claimed almost 5.5 million lives. In a 2012 news story, The Guardian reported, "In unsafe mines deep underground in eastern Congo, children are working to extract minerals essential for the electronics industry. The profits from the minerals finance the bloodiest conflict since the second world war; the war has lasted nearly 20 years and has recently flared up again. ... For the last 15 years, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been a major source of natural resources for the mobile phone industry."
FairPhone is an attempt to develop a mobile phone which does not contain conflict minerals.
See also  
Further reading
Agar, Jon, Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone, 2004 ISBN 1-84046-541-7
Ahonen, Tomi, m-Profits: Making Money with 3G Services, 2002, ISBN 0-470-84775-1
Ahonen, Kasper and Melkko, 3G Marketing 2004, ISBN 0-470-85100-7
Glotz, Peter & Bertsch, Stefan, eds. Thumb Culture: The Meaning of Mobile Phones for Society, 2005
Goggin, Gerard, Global Mobile Media, p. 176. ISBN 978-0415469180
Jain, S. Lochlann. . Journal of Consumer Culture 2:3  385–404. .
Katz, James E. & Aakhus, Mark, eds. Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, 2002
Kavoori, Anandam & Arceneaux, Noah, eds. The Cell Phone Reader: Essays in Social Transformation, 2006
Kennedy, Pagan., The New York Times, 15 March 2013, p. MM19
Kopomaa, Timo. The City in Your Pocket, Gaudeamus 2000
Levinson, Paul, Cellphone: The Story of the World's Most Mobile Medium, and How It Has Transformed Everything!, 2004 ISBN 1-4039-6041-0
Ling, Rich, The Mobile Connection: the Cell Phone's Impact on Society, 2004 ISBN 1-55860-936-9
Ling, Rich and Pedersen, Per, eds. Mobile Communications: Re-negotiation of the Social Sphere, 2005 ISBN 1-85233-931-4
Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Communication: Essays on Cognition and Community, 2003
Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Learning: Essays on Philosophy, Psychology and Education, 2003
Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Democracy: Essays on Society, Self and Politics, 2003
Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. A Sense of Place: The Global and the Local in Mobile Communication, 2005
Nyíri, Kristóf, ed.  Mobile Understanding: The Epistemology of Ubiquitous Communication, 2006
Plant, Dr. Sadie,, 2001
Rheingold, Howard, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, 2002 ISBN 0-7382-0861-2
External links
, 15 photos with captions from Time magazine
—a video documentary by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation


The Fluidity of Facebook.

 Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Its website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg with his Harvard College roommates and fellow students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. The founders had initially limited the website's membership to Harvard students, but later expanded it to colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities and later to high-school students. Since 2006, anyone who is at least 13 years old was allowed to become a registered user of the website, though the age requirement may be higher depending on applicable local laws. Its name comes from a colloquialism for the directory given to it by American universities' students.
After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile, add other users as "friends", exchange messages, post status updates and photos, share videos and receive notifications when others update their profiles. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics, and categorize their friends into lists such as "People From Work" or "Close Friends". Facebook had over 1.18 billion monthly active users as of August 2015.
2003–2005: Thefacebook, Thiel investment and name change  
Zuckerberg wrote a program called Facemash on October 28, 2003 while attending Harvard University as a sophomore . According to The Harvard Crimson, the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the 'hotter' person"
To accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into protected areas of Harvard's computer network and copied private dormitory ID images. Harvard did not have a student "Facebook"  at the time, although individual houses had been issuing their own paper facebooks since the mid-1980s, and Harvard's longtime Freshman Yearbook was colloquially referred to as the "Freshman Facebook". Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online.
The site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days later by the Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, and violating individual privacy. Ultimately, the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded 500 Augustan images to a website, each of which was featured with a corresponding comments section. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "Thefacebook", originally located at
Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors—Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra—accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called They claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to The Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares .
Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College; within the first month, more than half the undergraduates at Harvard were registered on the service. Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to the universities of Columbia, Stanford, and Yale. It later opened to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, and gradually most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, entrepreneur Sean Parker — an informal advisor to Zuckerberg — became the company's president. In June 2004, Facebook moved its operations base to Palo Alto, California. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name for US$200,000.
In May 2005, Accel partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A January 2009 study ranked Facebook the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users. Entertainment Weekly included the site on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list saying, "How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers' birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?"
A high-school version of the site was launched in September 2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical step.  Facebook also expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft.
2006–2011: public access, Microsoft alliance and rapid growth  
On September 26, 2006, Facebook was opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address.
In late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 business pages . These started as group pages, but a new concept called company pages was planned. Pages began rolling out for businesses in May 2009.
On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements on the social networking site.
In October 2008, Facebook announced that it would set up its international headquarters in Dublin, Ireland. Almost a year later, in September 2009, Facebook said that it had turned cash-flow positive for the first time.
Traffic to Facebook increased steadily after 2009. The company announced 500 million users in July 2010
In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc., Facebook's value was $41 billion. The company had slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google and
In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California. In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook was removing approximately 20,000 profiles offline every day for violations such as spam, graphic content, and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security.
Release of statistics by DoubleClick showed that Facebook reached one trillion page views in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website tracked by DoubleClick. According to a Nielsen Media Research study, released in December 2011, Facebook had become the second-most accessed website in the U.S. behind Google.
2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits and one-billionth user  
Facebook eventually filed for an initial public offering on February 1, 2012. Facebook held an initial public offering on May 17, 2012, negotiating a share price of US$38. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
Facebook Inc. began selling stock to the public and trading on the NASDAQ on May 18, 2012. Based on its 2012 income of $5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the first time in May 2013, ranked in position 462.
Facebook filed their S1 document with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 1, 2012. The company applied for a $5 billion IPO, one of the biggest offerings in the history of technology. The IPO raised $16 billion, making it the third-largest in U.S. history.
The shares began trading on May 18; the stock struggled to stay above the IPO price for most of the day, but set a record for the trading volume of an IPO . The first day of trading was marred by technical glitches that prevented orders from going through; only the technical problems and artificial support from underwriters prevented the stock price from falling below the IPO price on the day.
In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the site. The store was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and mobile web users.
On May 22, 2012, the Yahoo! Finance website reported that Facebook's lead underwriters, Morgan Stanley, JP Morgan, and Goldman Sachs, cut their earnings forecasts for the company in the middle of the IPO process. The stock had begun its freefall by this time, closing at 34.03 on May 21 and 31.00 on May 22. A "circuit breaker" was used in an attempt to slow down the stock price's decline. Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Mary Schapiro, and Financial Industry Regulatory Authority  Chairman Rick Ketchum, called for a review of the circumstances surrounding the IPO.
Facebook's IPO was consequently investigated, and was compared to a pump and dump scheme. A class-action lawsuit was filed in May 2012 because of the trading glitches, which led to botched orders. Lawsuits were filed, alleging that an underwriter for Morgan Stanley selectively revealed adjusted earnings estimates to preferred clients.
The other underwriters, Facebook's CEO and board, and NASDAQ also faced litigation after numerous lawsuits were filed, while SEC and FINRA both launched investigations. It was believed that adjustments to earnings estimates were communicated to the underwriters by a Facebook financial officer, who used the information to cash out on their positions while leaving the general public with overpriced shares. By the end of May 2012, Facebook's stock lost over a quarter of its starting value, which led the Wall Street Journal to label the IPO a "fiasco".
Zuckerberg announced to the media at the start of October 2012 that Facebook had passed the monthly active users mark of one billion—Facebook defines active users as a logged-in member who visits the site, or accesses it through a third-party site connected to Facebook, at least once a month. Fake accounts were not mentioned in the announcement, but the company continued to remove them after it found that 8.7% of its users were not real in August 2012. The company's data also revealed 600 million mobile users, 140 billion friend connections since the inception of Facebook, and the median age of a user as 22 years.
2013–present: site developments, A4AI and 10th anniversary  
On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise answer," rather than a link to an answer by leveraging the data present on its site. Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware," returning only results from content already shared with the user.
The company became the subject of a lawsuit by Rembrandt Social Media in February 2013, for patents involving the "Like" button. On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. HTC announced the HTC First, a smartphone with Home pre-loaded.
On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles. On April 19, 2013, Facebook officially modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box.
Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic and sexual violence against women, and used over 57,000 tweets and more than 4,900 emails that caused withdrawal of advertising from the site by 15 companies, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK. The social media website initially responded by stating that "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies". It decided to take action on May 29, 2013, after it "become clear that our systems to identify and remove hate speech have failed to work as effectively as we would like, particularly around issues of gender-based hate."
On June 12, 2013, Facebook announced on its newsroom that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic. A July 2013 Wall Street Journal article identified the Facebook IPO as the cause of a change in the U.S.' national economic statistics, as the local government area of the company's headquarters, San Mateo County, California, became the top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average weekly wage in the county was US$3,240, 107% higher than the previous year. It noted the wages were "the equivalent of $168,000 a year, and more than 50% higher than the next-highest county, New York County, at $2,107 a week, or roughly $110,000 a year."
Russian internet firm Mail.Ru sold its Facebook shares for US$525 million on September 5, 2013, following its initial $200 million investment in 2009. Partly owned by Russia's richest man, Alisher Usmanovhe, the firm owned a total of 14.2 million remaining shares prior to the sale. In the same month, the Chinese government announced that it will lift the ban on Facebook in the Shanghai Free Trade Zone "to welcome foreign companies to invest and to let foreigners live and work happily in the free-trade zone." Facebook was first blocked in China in 2009.
Facebook was announced as a member of The Alliance for Affordable Internet  in October 2013, when the A4AI was launched. The A4AI is a coalition of public and private organisations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable so that access is broadened in the developing world, where only 31% of people are online. Google will help to decrease Internet access prices so that they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of monthly income.
A Reuters report, published on December 11, 2013, stated that Standard & Poor's announced the placement of Facebook on its S&P 500 index "after the close of trading on December 20." Facebook announced Q4 2013 earnings of $523 million, an increase of $64 million from the previous year, as well as 945 million mobile users.
By January 2014, Facebook's market capitalization had risen to over $134 billion. At the end of January 2014, 1.23 billion users were active on the website every month.
The company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014. In each of the first three months of 2014, over one billion users logged into their Facebook account on a mobile device.
In February 2014, Facebook announced that it would be buying mobile messaging company Whatsapp for US$19 billion in cash and stock. In June 2014, Facebook announced the acquisition of Pryte, a Finnish mobile data-plan firm that aims to make it easier for mobile phone users in underdeveloped parts of the world to use wireless Internet apps.
At the start of July 2014, Facebook announced the acquisition of LiveRail, a San Francisco, California-based online video advertising company. LiveRail's technology facilitates the sale of video inventory across different devices. The terms of the deal were undisclosed, but TechCrunch reported that Facebook paid between US$400 million and $500 million. As part of the company's second quarter results, Facebook announced in late July 2014 that mobile accounted for 62% of its advertising revenue, which is an increase of 21% from the previous year.
Alongside other American technology figures like Jeff Bezos and Tim Cook, Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in the enforcement of China's online policy, at Facebook's headquarters on December 8, 2014. The meeting occurred after Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, 2014, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin—although Facebook is banned in China, Zuckerberg is highly regarded among the people and was at the university to help fuel the nation's burgeoning entrepreneur sector. A book of Chinese president Xi Xinping found on Zuckerberg's office desk attracted a great deal of attention in the media, after the Facebook founder explained to Lu, "I want them  to understand socialism with Chinese characteristics."
Zuckerberg fielded questions during a live Q&A session at the company's headquarters in Menlo Park on December 11, 2014. The question of whether the platform would adopt a dislike button was raised again, and Zuckerberg said, "We're  thinking about it  ... It's an interesting question," and said that he likes the idea of Facebook users being able to express a greater variety of emotions.
As of January 21, 2015, Facebook's algorithm is programmed to filter out false or misleading content, such as fake news stories and hoaxes, and will be supported by users who select the option to flag a story as "purposefully fake or deceitful news." According to Reuters, such content is "being spread like a wildfire" on the social media platform. Facebook maintained that "satirical" content, "intended to be humorous, or content that is clearly labeled as satire," will be taken into account and should not be intercepted.
Corporate affairs
The ownership percentages of the company,, are:
Mark Zuckerberg: 28%,
Accel Partners: 10%
Mail.Ru Group: 10%
Dustin Moskovitz: 6%
Eduardo Saverin: 5%
Sean Parker: 4%
Peter Thiel: 3%
Greylock Partners: between 1 to 2%
Meritech Capital Partners: between 1 to 2% each
Microsoft: 1.3%
Li Ka-shing: 0.8%
Interpublic Group: less than 0.5%
A small group of current and former employees and celebrities own less than 1% each, including Matt Cohler, Jeff Rothschild, Adam D'Angelo, Chris Hughes, and Owen Van Natta, while Reid Hoffman and Mark Pincus have sizable holdings of the company. The remaining 30% or so are owned by employees, an undisclosed number of celebrities, and outside investors. Adam D'Angelo, former chief technology officer and friend of Zuckerberg, resigned in May 2008. Reports claimed that he and Zuckerberg began quarreling, and that he was no longer interested in partial ownership of the company.
Key management personnel consist of: Chris Cox, Sandberg, and Zuckerberg . Mike Vernal is considered to be the company's top engineer., Facebook has over 7,000 employees, and offices in 15 countries. Other managers include chief financial officer David Wehner and public relations head Elliot Schrage.
Facebook was named the 5th best company to work for in 2014 by company-review site Glassdoor as part of its sixth annual Employees' Choice Awards. The website stated that 93% of Facebook employees would recommend the company to a friend.
Most of Facebook's revenue comes from advertising. Facebook generally has a lower clickthrough rate  for advertisements than most major Web sites. According to, banner advertisements on Facebook have generally received one-fifth the number of clicks compared to those on the Web as a whole, although specific comparisons can reveal a much larger disparity. For example, while Google users click on the first advertisement for search results an average of 8% of the time, Facebook's users click on advertisements an average of 0.04% of the time .
Sarah Smith, who was Facebook's Online Sales Operations Manager until 2012, reported that successful advertising campaigns on the site can have clickthrough rates as low as 0.05% to 0.04%, and that CTR for ads tend to fall within two weeks.
The cause of Facebook's low CTR has been attributed to younger users enabling ad blocking software and their adeptness at ignoring advertising messages, as well as the site's primary purpose being social communication rather than content viewing. According to digital consultancy iStrategy Labs in mid-January 2014, three million fewer users aged between 13 and 17 years were present on Facebook's Social Advertising platform compared to 2011. However, Time Writer and Reporter Christopher Matthews stated in the wake of the iStrategy Labs results:
A big part of Facebook's pitch is that it has so much information about its users that it can more effectively target ads to those who will be responsive to the content. If Facebook can prove that theory to be true, then it may not worry so much about losing its cool cachet.
In December 2014, a report from Frank N. Magid and Associates found that the percentage of teens aged 13 to 17 who used Facebook fell to 88% in 2014, down from 94% in 2013 and 95% in 2012.
Zuckerberg, alongside other Facebook executives, have questioned the data in such reports; although, a former Facebook senior employee has commented: "Mark  is very willing to recognize the strengths in other products and the flaws in Facebook."
On pages for brands and products, however, some companies have reported CTR as high as 6.49% for Wall posts. A study found that, for video advertisements on Facebook, over 40% of users who viewed the videos viewed the entire video, while the industry average was 25% for in-banner video ads.
The company released its own set of revenue data at the end of January 2014 and claimed: Revenues of US$2.59 billion were generated for the three months ending December 31, 2013; earnings per share were 31 cents; revenues of US$7.87 billion were made for the entirety of 2013; and Facebook's annual profit for 2013 was US$1.5 billion. During the same time, independent market research firm eMarketer released data in which Facebook accounted for 5.7 per cent of all global digital ad revenues in 2013 .
Mergers and acquisitions  
On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of one of the ten highest domain sales in history.
In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move to its new headquarters, the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park.
All users outside of the US and Canada have a contract with Facebook's Irish subsidiary "Facebook Ireland Limited". This allows Facebook to avoid US taxes for all users in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. Facebook is making use of the Double Irish arrangement which allows it to pay just about 2–3% corporation tax on all international revenue.
In 2010, Facebook opened its fourth office, in Hyderabad and the first in Asia.
Facebook, which in 2010 had more than 750 million active users globally including over 23 million in India, announced that its Hyderabad center would house online advertising and developer support teams and provide round-the-clock, multilingual support to the social networking site's users and advertisers globally. With this, Facebook joins other giants like Google, Microsoft, Oracle, Dell, IBM and Computer Associates that have already set up shop. In Hyderabad, it is registered as 'Facebook India Online Services Pvt Ltd'.
Though Facebook did not specify its India investment or hiring figures, it said recruitment had already begun for a director of operations and other key positions at Hyderabad, which would supplement its operations in California, Dublin in Ireland as well as at Austin, Texas.
A custom-built data center with substantially reduced  power consumption compared to existing Facebook data centers opened in April 2011 in Prineville, Oregon. In April 2012, Facebook opened a second data center in Forest City, North Carolina, US. In June 2013, Facebook opened a third data center in Luleå, Sweden. In November 2014, Facebook opened a fourth data center in Altoona, Iowa, US.
On October 1, 2012, CEO Zuckerberg visited Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook's position in the Russian market. Russia's communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant's founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. Facebook has roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic analogue VK has around 34 million.
The functioning of a woodwork facility on the Menlo Park campus was announced at the end of August 2013. The facility, opened in June 2013, provides equipment, safety courses and woodwork learning course, while employees are required to purchase materials at the in-house store. A Facebook spokesperson explained that the intention of the facility is to encourage employees to think in an innovative manner because of the different environment, and also serves as an attractive perk for prospective employees.
1601californiaavelobby.jpg Entrance to Facebook's previous headquarters in the Stanford Research Park, Palo Alto, California
Facebook Headquarters 1 Hacker Way Menlo Park.jpg Entrance to Facebook headquarters complex in Menlo Park, California
Inside the Facebook campus.jpg Inside the Facebook headquarters in 2014
Open source contributions  
Facebook is both a consumer of and contributor to free and open source software. Facebook's contributions include: HipHop for PHP, Fair scheduler in Apache Hadoop, Apache Hive, Apache Cassandra, and the Open Compute Project.
Facebook also contributes to other opensource projects such as Oracle's MySQL database engine.
Technical aspects  
The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red-green colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around 2007; he explained in 2010: "blue is the richest color for me—I can see all of blue." Facebook is built in PHP which is compiled with HipHop for PHP, a 'source code transformer' built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++. The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by 50%.
Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Chuck Rossi, a build engineer at Facebook, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent-based release system. Rossi stated that it takes approximately 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process is zero downtime and new changes to Facebook are rolled out daily.
Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out . Ptail data is separated out into three streams so they can eventually be sent to their own clusters in different data centers . Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow . Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods . Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table.
Facebook uses the Momentum platform from Message Systems to deliver the enormous volume of emails it sends to its users every day.
On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a "cleaner" look. After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook began migrating all users to the new version starting in September 2008. On December 11, 2008, it was announced that Facebook was testing a simpler signup process.




Voice calls

Video calling

Video viewing

Tor hidden service

In 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Pages  to allow "users to interact and affiliate with businesses and organizations in the same way they interact with other Facebook user profiles". On November 6, 2007, more than 100,000 Facebook pages were launched.
In July 2012, Facebook added a same-sex marriage icon to its timeline feature. On February 14, 2014, Facebook expanded the options for user's gender setting, adding a custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of gender identities. Users can also set which set of gender-specific pronouns are used in reference to them throughout the site. The change occurs after Nepal's first openly gay politician Sunil Babu Pant sent a letter to Zuckerberg in early 2012 to request the addition of an "Other" gender option for Facebook users; Facebook's official statement on the issue: "People can already opt out of showing their sex on their profile. We're constantly innovating on our products and features and we welcome input from everyone as we explore ways to improve the Facebook experience."
On June 13, 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, whereby pages can be linked with simpler URLs such as  instead of . Many new smartphones offer access to Facebook services through either their Web browsers or applications. An official Facebook application is available for the operating systems Android, iOS, webOS, and Firefox OS. Nokia and Research In Motion both provide Facebook applications for their own mobile devices. As of January 2015, 745 million active users access Facebook through mobile devices every day.
In May 2014, Facebook introduced a feature to allow users to ask for information not disclosed by other users on their profiles. If a user does not provide key information, such as location, hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new 'ask' button to send a message asking about that item to the user in a single click.
News Feed  
On September 6, 2006, News Feed was announced, which appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays of the user's friends. This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities .

Truly Zodiac

 In both astrology and historical astronomy, the zodiac is a circle of twelve 30° divisions of celestial longitude that are centered upon the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. The paths of the Moon and visible planets also remain close to the ecliptic, within the belt of the zodiac, which extends 8-9° north or south of the ecliptic, as measured in celestial latitude. Because the divisions are regular, they do not correspond exactly to the twelve constellations after which they are named.
Historically, these twelve divisions are called signs. Essentially, the zodiac is a celestial coordinate system, or more specifically an ecliptic coordinate system, which takes the ecliptic as the origin of latitude, and the position of the Sun at vernal equinox as the origin of longitude.
The zodiac was in use by the Roman era, based on concepts inherited by Hellenistic astronomy from Babylonian astronomy of the Chaldean period, which, in turn, derived from an earlier system of lists of stars along the ecliptic. The construction of the zodiac is described in Ptolemy's vast 2nd century AD work, the Almagest.
The term zodiac derives from Latin zōdiacus, which in its turn comes from the Greek, meaning "circle of animals", derived from, the diminutive of  "animal". The name is motivated by the fact that half of the signs of the classical Greek zodiac are represented as animals .
Although the zodiac remains the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system in use in astronomy besides the equatorial one, the term and the names of the twelve signs are today mostly associated with horoscopic astrology. The term "zodiac" may also refer to the region of the celestial sphere encompassing the paths of the planets corresponding to the band of about eight arc degrees above and below the ecliptic. The zodiac of a given planet is the band that contains the path of that particular body; e.g., the "zodiac of the Moon" is the band of five degrees above and below the ecliptic. By extension, the "zodiac of the comets" may refer to the band encompassing most short-period comets.
Early history  
The division of the ecliptic into the zodiacal signs originates in Babylonian  astronomy during the first half of the 1st millennium BC, likely during Median/"Neo-Babylonian" times .
The classical zodiac is a modification of the MUL.APIN catalogue, which was compiled around 1000 BC.
Some of the constellations can be traced even further back, to Bronze Age  sources, including Gemini "The Twins", from MAŠ.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL "The Great Twins", and Cancer "The Crab", from AL.LUL "The Crayfish", among others.
Babylonian astronomers at some stage during the early 1st millennium BC divided the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude to create the first known celestial coordinate system: a coordinate system that boasts some advantages over modern systems . The Babylonian calendar as it stood in the 7th century BC assigned each month to a sign, beginning with the position of the Sun at vernal equinox, which, at the time, was depicted as the Aries constellation, for which reason the first sign is still called "Aries" even after the vernal equinox has moved away from the Aries constellation due to the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation.
Because the division was made into equal arcs, 30° each, they constituted an ideal system of reference for making predictions about a planet's longitude. However, Babylonian techniques of observational measurements were in a rudimentary stage of evolution and it is unclear whether they had techniques to define in a precise way the boundary lines between the zodiacal signs in the sky. Thus, the need to use stars close to the ecliptic  as a set of observational reference points to help positioning a planet within this ecliptic coordinate system. Constellations were given the names of the signs and asterisms could be connected in a way that would resemble the sign's name. Therefore, in spite of its conceptual origin, the Babylonian zodiac became sidereal.
In Babylonian astronomical diaries, a planet position was generally given with respect to a zodiacal sign alone, less often in specific degrees within a sign. When the degrees of longitude were given, they were expressed with reference to the 30° of the zodiacal sign, i.e., not with a reference to the continuous 360° ecliptic. To the construction of their mathematical ephemerides, daily positions of a planet were not as important as the dates when the planet crossed from one zodiacal sign to the next.
Knowledge of the Babylonian zodiac is also reflected in the Hebrew Bible. E. W. Bullinger interpreted the creatures appearing in the books of Ezekiel and Revelation as the middle signs of the four quarters of the Zodiac, with the Lion as Leo, the Bull is Taurus, the Man representing Aquarius and the Eagle representing Scorpio. Some authors have linked the twelve tribes of Israel with the twelve signs. Martin and others have argued that the arrangement of the tribes around the Tabernacle  corresponded to the order of the Zodiac, with Judah, Reuben, Ephraim, and Dan representing the middle signs of Leo, Aquarius, Taurus, and Scorpio, respectively. Such connections were taken up by Thomas Mann, who in his novel Joseph and His Brothers attributes characteristics of a sign of the zodiac to each tribe in his rendition of the Blessing of Jacob.
Hellenistic and Roman era  
The Babylonian star catalogs entered Greek astronomy in the 4th century BC, via Eudoxus of Cnidus.
Babylonia or Chaldea in the Hellenistic world came to be so identified with astrology that "Chaldean wisdom" became among Greeks and Romans the synonym of divination through the planets and stars.
Hellenistic astrology derived in part from Babylonian and Egyptian astrology.
Horoscopic astrology first appeared in Ptolemaic Egypt. The Dendera zodiac, a relief dating to ca. 50 BC, is the first known depiction of the classical zodiac of twelve signs.
Particularly important in the development of Western horoscopic astrology was the astrologer and astronomer Ptolemy, whose work Tetrabiblos laid the basis of the Western astrological tradition. Under the Greeks, and Ptolemy in particular, the planets, Houses, and signs of the zodiac were rationalized and their function set down in a way that has changed little to the present day. Ptolemy lived in the 2nd century AD, three centuries after the discovery of the precession of the equinoxes by Hipparchus around 130 BC. Hipparchus's lost work on precession never circulated very widely until it was brought to prominence by Ptolemy, and there are few explanations of precession outside the work of Ptolemy until late Antiquity, by which time Ptolemy's influence was widely established. Ptolemy clearly explained the theoretical basis of the western zodiac as being a tropical coordinate system, by which the zodiac is aligned to the equinoxes and solstices, rather than the visible constellations that bear the same names as the zodiac signs.
Hindu zodiac  
The Hindu zodiac uses the sidereal coordinate system, which makes reference to the fixed stars. The Tropical zodiac  is divided by the intersections of the ecliptic and equator, which shifts in relation to the backdrop of fixed stars at a rate of 1° every 72 years, creating the phenomenon known as precession of the equinoxes. The Hindu zodiac, being sidereal, does not maintain this seasonal alignment, but there are still similarities between the two systems. The Hindu zodiac signs and corresponding Greek signs sound very different, being in Sanskrit and Greek respectively, but their symbols are nearly identical. For example, dhanu means "bow" and corresponds to Sagittarius, the "archer", and kumbha means "water-pitcher" and corresponds to Aquarius, the "water-carrier".
Middle Ages  
The High Middle Ages saw a revival of Greco-Roman magic, first in Kabbalism and later continued in Renaissance magic. This included magical uses of the zodiac, as found, e.g., in the Sefer Raziel HaMalakh.
The zodiac is found in mediaeval stained glass as at Angers Cathedral, where the master glassmaker, André Robin, made the ornate rosettes for the North and South transepts after the fire there in 1451.
Early modern  
An example of the use of signs as astronomical coordinates may be found in the Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris for the year 1767. The "Longitude of the Sun" columns show the sign, degrees from 0 to 29, minutes, and seconds.
The zodiacal symbols are Early Modern simplifications of conventional pictorial representations of the signs, attested since Hellenistic times.
The twelve signs  
What follows is a list of the twelve signs of the modern zodiac, where 0° Aries is understood as the vernal equinox, with their Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, and Babylonian names . Also, the "English translation" is not usually used by English speakers. The Latin names are standard English usage.
The zodiacal signs are distinct from the constellations associated with them, not only because of their drifting apart due to the precession of equinoxes but also because the physical constellations take up varying widths of the ecliptic, so the Sun is not in each constellation for the same amount of time. Thus, Virgo takes up five times as much ecliptic longitude as Scorpius. The zodiacal signs are an abstraction from the physical constellations, and each represent exactly one twelfth of the full circle, or the longitude traversed by the Sun in about 30.4 days.
Some "parazodiacal" constellations are also touched by the paths of the planets. The MUL.APIN lists Orion, Perseus, Auriga, and Andromeda. Furthermore, there are a number of constellations mythologically associated with the zodiacal ones : Piscis Austrinus, The Southern Fish, is attached to Aquarius. In classical maps, it swallows the stream poured out of Aquarius' pitcher, but perhaps it formerly just swam in it. Aquila, The Eagle, was possibly associated with the zodiac by virtue of its main star, Altair. Hydra in the Early Bronze Age marked the celestial equator and was associated with Leo, which is shown standing on the serpent on the Dendera zodiac. Corvus is the Crow or Raven mysteriously perched on the tail of Hydra.
Due to the constellation boundaries being redefined in 1930 by the International Astronomical Union, the path of the ecliptic now officially passes through thirteen constellations: the twelve traditional 'zodiac constellations' plus Ophiuchus, the bottom part of which interjects between Scorpio and Sagittarius. Ophiuchus is an anciently recognized constellation, catalogued along with many others in Ptolemy's Almagest, but not historically referred to as a zodiac constellation. The inaccurate description of Ophiuchus as a sign of the zodiac drew media attention in 1995, when the BBC Nine O'Clock News reported that "an extra sign of the zodiac has been announced by the Royal Astronomical Society". There had been no such announcement, and the report had merely sensationalized the 67-year-old 'news' of the IAU's decision to alter the number of designated ecliptic constellations.
Table of dates  
The following table compares the Gregorian dates on which the Sun enters
a sign in the Ptolemaic tropical zodiac
a sign in the Hindu sidereal system
the astronomical constellation of the same name as the sign, with constellation boundaries as defined in 1930 by the International Astronomical Union.
The theoretical beginning of Aries is the moment of vernal equinox, and all other dates shift accordingly.
The precise Gregorian times and dates vary slightly from year to year as the Gregorian calendar shifts relative to the tropical year. These variations remain within less than two days' difference in the recent past and the near-future, vernal equinox in UT always falling either on 20 or 21 March in the period of 1797 to 2043, falling on 19 March in 1796 the last time and in 2044 the next.
{  class "wikitable" style "text-align:left"
! colspan "4"   Sign
! colspan "4"   Constellation
! Name
! Symbol
! Tropical zodiac
! Sidereal zodiac
! Name
! IAU boundaries
! Solar stay
Precession of the equinoxes  
The zodiac system was developed in Babylonia, some 2,500 years ago, during the "Age of Aries". At the time, it is assumed, the precession of the equinoxes was unknown, as the system made no allowance for it. Contemporary use of the coordinate system is presented with the choice of interpreting the system either as sidereal, with the signs fixed to the stellar background, or as tropical, with the signs fixed to the point of vernal equinox.
Western astrology takes the tropical approach, whereas Hindu astrology takes the sidereal one. This results in the originally unified zodiacal coordinate system drifting apart gradually, with a clockwise precession of 1.4 degrees per century.
For the tropical zodiac used in Western astronomy and astrology, this means that the tropical sign of Aries currently lies somewhere within the constellation Pisces .
The sidereal coordinate system takes into account the ayanamsa, ayan meaning transit or movement, and amsa meaning small part, i.e. movement of equinoxes in small parts. It is unclear when Indians became aware of the precession of the equinoxes, but Bhaskar II's 12th-century treatise Siddhanta Shiromani gives equations for measurement of precession of equinoxes, and says his equations are based on some lost equations of Suryasiddhanta plus the equation of Munjaala.

love between zodiac signs

love between zodiac signs

Zodiac facts doesn't always revolve around actual life. It is factual in most cases though. People would try to change into what their zodiac lover sign is which would not be being true to self. Don't change to fit with what your lovers' sign likes. Be yourself. Don't live through astrology because it will be and feel silly. You should only rely on astrology to understand a person's personality more. Alot can be learned About Yourself/Others And the way they act by Their zodiac signs It Helps you to better understand why we do what we do. I like reading horoscopes especially when it's about my zodiac sign because it seems to be accurate. I am emotional and caring. I love hard and wear my heart on my sleeve. Not ashamed of who I naturally am. As a Cancer I must admit I want to be loved by someone and I want our sex life to be fulfilling.

Someone tweeted: I've come to the point in my life where I now blame my zodiac sign for at least 80% of my life problems. - I find this funny. Your sign has pros and cons which means you, as a person have pros and cons. Everyone does! Embrace and grow and keep it moving.

Thursday, September 10, 2015

free pornhub: the best of the best

Everybody like free pornhub, especially during late nights. It's watched internationally by lots of races whether they're single or not. I watched it with my bestfriend while we were working before. It was before I learned that Pornhub had it to where a regular person like you and me can get paid. But this isn't about that so you would have to look into that yourself.

It's amazing that Pornhub is so popular and it's no longer a 5 video limit. They're making money all kinds of ways, that's why. I like the site and I know you probably do too. I think I want to now go into the pros and cons of the website because it's only right to get as deep as possible since I am covering this hugely, popular site.

The pros are:

The website is easy to navigate.
The site is completely free to excess.
It will make you horny enough to get your rocks off.
You can become a member and message people.
Possibly make some "new friends".
Discover multiple sex positions.
Discover beautiful men and women.
Learn what type of stuff you're interested in or find fascinating.

The cons are:

Some of the videos have poor or blurry quality.
Some of the pornstars are too much of an actress for it to seem real.
May be hard to get your rocks off if some scenes are too rehearsed.
Not safe for work.
Can't be on this website around company.
Some things shown may disturb you or you may not like certain videos.
The pop under ads can get annoying.

free pornhub

No matter what though, at the end of the day, this website is very popular and gets a lot of attention from horny men and women. Some people watch the videos listed as if it was TV and some are looking to get aroused and let loose. I would like to wonder how some people look and engage in the videos they watch when they're on the website.

It's amazing that this website was once underestimated back some years ago. I honestly didn't think it would be this popular. Since the limit was lifted, it's even more popular. They do a lot of advertising and promotion I'm sure. Maybe they don't though because it's easy to tell someone about the wild sex scene you saw and they ask where they can access it at. That's when Pornhub gets even more traffic and continue to rank so highly on Alexa.

It's kind of hilarious the many small dicks you will see in some of those videos. Like, those men need to do something and try to get those things bigger. They be so nasty with little inches of dick. Maybe they're in denia about the size. That would have to suck.

If you enjoyed my cutt throat, raw, and unrated post about free pornhub then you can definitely share it on your Twitter or Facebook page for me ;) Thanks! come again

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

all you need to know about the music business

all you need to know about the music business

The music business is one of the most known and popular niche there is. What people get wrong though is the money part. I mean, yeah there is potential and possibilities of being rich, but the music industry is not the niche that makes the most money. The fame is one thing you can count on though when you enter the music business. You're on television which is watched everyday and sometimes people watch it all day. Lately, lots of people been thinking they truly have the talents to sing and rap when they are mainly using auto tunes. It's annoying. Their friends lie to them and cheer them on so they make more ugly songs. Some people do have some talents while others are just not so good at what they thought they were good at. I guess it's a good way to get your foot in the door for other things you may want to do in the long run. As long as you get on TV, that's your ticket to different things within the celebrity world.

It can be tricky in the music business because you may receive offers that aren't really clarified and then you may agree to something without all the information you need. You're going to have to find someone you can trust to manage you and your shows. Someone will need to manage the finances and the bookings. You only need one or two people to help you with those things. If you have a friend you know you can trust, maybe they can be the person you pursue for that. They'll be working for you and getting paid without having to worry about mainstream work and stress. You guys will get to still be around each other and all the while, money will be pouring in.

The good thing about the music business is that you can meet new people and your social circle will grow. You will have a lot of international friends, so you may not ever be bored. You will meet people that would make you feel like you known them forever. It will be interesting to watch your shows get more crowded than the previous ones. Think about how you're going to be increasing appearance fees once you blow up. Only thing you need to make sure of is that you still with people you are comfortable with. No funny business! Stick to what you know. You don't need no 60 million a year. Let's face it, you probably don't want a big ass house with 10 rooms and you don't even have a family that big!

all you need to know about the music business

You just need a little talent and after that, you may get lessons from choreographers, vocal specialists, and more to help you get better. Some people are born with the talent to sing and rap while some have to learn. If you know you know how to sing and you want to become a singer or rapper, go for it! Don't leave your loved ones behind, don't forget about them, consider their suggestions, keep them around as much as possible, make history in a positive way. Make sure your music has meaning and intruiging messages full of greatness. Nothing dull, devious, or scandalous. You want to have fans of all ages. It's possible and happens everyday. You want people to know you and who you are. You want to set good standards. Always post your videos to Youtube if you can.

When someone decides that you deserve criticism, don't get defensive. It's because they care. It always will depend on how they criticized you. If you don't feel it was directed disrespectfully, then you know you don't have to trip off of it. They just want to help you get better at your skill. You need to keep everyone on your good side because they will be quick to say you're letting the money and fame get to your head. You don't want to hear that, I'm sure. Hopefully I covered a lot of the basics for you. If you're an aspiring artist, I want to say GOOD LUCK!

all you need to know about the music business

Tuesday, September 8, 2015

animals fucking women

animals fucking women has to be the most nastiest thing ever. Ugh, like why would someone want to fuck an animal? There is nothing sexy about it. It is gross and disturbing because an animal is nothing like a human. Animals do things very differently than humans and yet humans feel they need to bust is open for animals. Horses fucking women was the ultimate cake taker. A horse and its huge penis, like why?? That's a wild thing to want to do and you have to be crazy to agree to something so outrageous. The horse could have crushed the women it was fucking and could have stretched her pussy very wide. If you have an interest in having sex with an animal then you are fucking crazy. Also if you think you would enjoy seeing people fuck animals, you're just as crazy. I don't care how horny someone is, fucking an animal will not help you get your rocks off. Ugh you have to be really crazy to find pleasure in fucking dogs, horses, cows, or any other animal.

anal fucking machine: Is it safe?

People are trying to spice their sex life up with an anal fucking machine since some guys are showing interest in anal sex. This is not a bad thing because we all want an active sex life. Some women, though may feel this is a must, even if they aren't totally fine with it. They may feel it is something that is required to keep their man happy. Not the case!

If something isn't really your thing, then you should be able to say it without problems arising. He should respect that you aren't comfortable with it. Let alone machine that can probably go wrong. It is not only for your asshole, but for your pussy too.

Sex machines for pussy and asses can be a good thing or a bad thing. Let's weigh the pros and cons here that I can think of:

The machine can get stuck.
There can be a glitch to where the machine starts pumping extremely fast.
There may be something that causes you to feel the metal.

You will get some anal sex training.
You will open up your butt hole for your man.
You may get more comfortable with anal sex.

These are the only things I can think of right now. It is just important that as a women, you are comfortable with this completely. Don't lead your man on if you really aren't into anal play. It is always safe to speak up.

Anal fucking machine

Saturday, September 5, 2015

Phone Mates

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sex money weed: Best Story!

All Tanisha thought about was sex money weed. She already knew when she was in highschool that she was going to hustle niggas out of their coins. She had saw her mother go through so much torture with dudes and she grew tired of it. Not to mention the dudes that tried to rape her one time she got out of her eighth grade class. She had got their asses back by putting firecrackers in their lockers, fucking up their belongings and she also got them beat up one by one by her cousin, Derrick. Tanisha was laid back and outgoing. She couldn't trust people too easily because she done been through enough shit to only be seventeen.

Alisha was Tanisha's bestfriend since fourth grade. They did everything together. They loss their virginity the same night. They went to prom together, and was going to live together in the future. Alisha was outgoing just like Tanisha, just a little more rowdy. Tanisha wasn't quiet, she just knew when to get a certain way. Tanisha was able to talk freely though, she just wasn't going to put trust in you until you earned it. Alisha decided she was going to hustle and grind with Tanisha by milking these niggas. They ask for some pussy in the blink of an eye, so they were going to get that money.

This particular night, Alisha and Tanisha was going to the club called "Groovies". It sounded old, but people in their age group was there all the time partying. Tanisha and Alisha was shapely and wore a size seven in jeans. It was funny how their shapes were similar to a tea. People thought they were sisters because of that and their complexion. They were just close friends who dominated the years together. Now they were seventeen, but living like they were in their twenties. Tanisha and Alisha was a duo that couldn't be touched.

Tanisha decided she was going to wear a half shirt and some light blue jeans with her fresh roller wrap. Alisha had some Remy tracks in her hair and decided to add kinky curls to them. These chicks were always dressing to grab just the right nigga's eyes. He had to have money. Though Tanisha and Alisha had naked hustles, they always were smart. They wore condoms and they never put anything pass anyone. They always watched for signs of possible danger. They carried weapons however they could. They wasn't going to risk cutting their pussies while going to the club.

Sex money weed

Tanisha couldn't get a rental car of course so she got one of her "tricks", Devin to ride them to the club. Devin was a handsome, darkskinned dude with dreads and perfect teeth. He liked Tanisha and understood her hustle was only for a little moment. He wasn't judgmental and that's what she liked about him. They both had a mutual crush on each other. Devin always tried to give her as much money as he could so she could possibly skip, but he couldn't always do it since he had his own responsibilities too. Devin was twenty one, but liked that Tanisha acted mature.

Devin arrived at Alisha house and was shocked at how good she looked. He use to have a crush on her, but not as strong as the crush he had on Tanisha. It was something hugely special about Tanisha that he couldn't shake so he just decided only on her. Even though Alisha was cute as shit too, he was loyal and highly attracted to Tanisha.

They arrived at Groovies and there was a line, but not too long. Since Tanisha and Alisha always attended this club and were always looking good enough to eat, the bouncers knew them and told them they didn't ever have to wait in the line. After Tanisha and Devin exchanged hugs and a few kisses, the girls evacuated the car and switched over to the front of the line. Other girls looked with jealousy in their eyes since they had to wait in the line.

It was a cool time after two hours of partying. The songs were on point and kept the club jumping. The girls had gotten a few numbers. Both had particular guy that wanted to stick around. Since they were cute and looked to be balling, they partied with them all night until let out.

Tanisha had met a guy named Davon and Alisha met a guy named Terell. These two guys weren't in the know about each other but were chatting it up seeing the girls were friends. It was a cool little clique formed and the guys knew how to have fun. Both seem to be laid back and that was a plus for the girls. They loved cool niggas who just wanted to lay low. Tanisha was hoping no shooting was going to happen after the club tonight because that always seemed to happen.

It turned out to be a night of weed smoking and music playing for Terell, Davon, Tanisha, and Alisha. No sex was had, but the girls managed to get some money out of the guys by keeping it real and letting them know that's what they wanted after all that time was spent. The guys thought the girls was cool, vice versa. It was a wonderful night that turned into an all nighter.

Sex money weed

highly sensitive person in love: It's not a bad thing because..

For many women, it's kind of normal to be a highly sensitive person in love. Lot's of us women are soft when in relationships. You may be a mushy person or you may not be so mushy, however, there's somebody for everybody. That's a true term. So true. You see how some people are considered nerds in middle and high school and yet have a lover who shows them affection anywhere. We all want that kind of love at the end of the day. We want someone we know we can call our own and not look crazy. 

Relationships aren't always easy to deal with because you have to hope you get pass first base. It's difficult nowadays to hold some people's attention because they been through enough to know that it's quickly time to cut you off. They can be wrong, but they are use to being single or at least without a title. It had become a cliche' to many to be in a relationship. Not to mention the music videos are changing the way immature people think.

It doesn't have to be difficult to date someone at all. When two people truly like each other and they spend enough time to help the relationship blossom, there is a chance of love. After about 4 months, that's when you know if you love a person or not. Believe it or not, 4 months is a real amount of time what you would have determined about that person or not. It's a crush before 4 months and love after. Don't try to beat yourself up if it's clear you two have chemistry and understanding. Just always keep the communication steady because that one thing is what lots of people lack in their relationships.

Some females like guys who are sensitive because it shows that they actually have a care about what has formed. Then you have some females who don't like the mushy type of dudes. They may feel like the dude is complaining and whining more than them. That's probably the case sometimes.

Relationships take compromise. You won't be loving someone in the blink of an eye because you have to learn that person. You would have to learn what annoys that person, what makes them happy, what pisses them off, what entices them, what they hate, what they dream of, what their long term plans are, what they have going for themselves, what type of general person they are, and what they can offer you besides lust and empty company.

This is why it is important to withhold sex because you need to learn that person. Just in case you two don't work out, you wouldn't have loss much and you won't have anything to sulk on. It's okay to learn how to not have sex so quickly. As a young adult, it won't always be simple for some, especially if the libido is always high. Just make sure you aren't mainly lusting, but looking for real love. You know what you like and what you won't tolerate. 

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